Today in History:

Table of Contents

User Rating: 0 / 5

Star InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar InactiveStar Inactive
 

 

Central Portion of MacMonnies Fountain--Effect of Electric Light

Drawn by Will H. Low.

The World's Fair at Chicago.

Central Portion of MacMonnies Fountain--Effect of Electric Light.


HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES

  

FROM THE EARLIEST DISCOVERY OF AMERICA TO THE PRESENT TIME

 

BY

E. BENJAMIN ANDREWS

CHANCELLOR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA

FORMERLY PRESIDENT OF BROWN UNIVERSITY

 

With 650 Illustrations and Maps

 

VOLUME IV.

 

NEW YORK

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS

1912


COPYRIGHT, 1894 AND 1903, BY

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS

007Pic


CONTENTS

 PERIOD IV

CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION

(Continued)

1860--1868

                                                                                                                              PAGE.

CHAPTER V. THE STRUGGLE FOR THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY                                   17

 

Three Great Lines of Campaign.--Confederate Posts in Kentucky.--Surrender of Fort Henry.--Siege of Fort Donelson.--Capture.-- Kentucky Cleared of Armed Confederates.--Pope Captures Island No. 10.--Gunboat Fight.--Memphis Ours.--­Battle of Pittsburg Landing.--Defeat and Victory.--Farragut and Butler to New Orleans.--Battle.--Victory.--The Crescent City Won.--On to Vicksburg.--Iuka.--Corinth.--Grant's Mas­terly Strategy.  --Sherman's Movements.--McClernand's.--Gunboats pass Vicksburg.--Capture of Jackson, Miss.--Battle of Champion's Hill.--Siege of Vicksburg.--Famine within.--The Surrender.

 

CHAPTER VI. THE WAR IN THE CENTRE                                                                     47

 

Bragg Invades Kentucky.--Buell Saves Louisville.--Battle of Perryville.--Of Stone River.--Losses.--Chickamauga.--Thomas the "Rock of Chickamauga."--Grant to the Front.--Bragg's Movements.--Chattanooga.--The "Battle above the Clouds."­--Capture of Missionary Ridge.--Bragg's Army Broken Up.--


 

Grant Lieutenant-General.--Plan of Campaign for 1864-65.--Sherman's Army.--Skirmishes.--Kenesaw Mountain.--Johnston at Bay.--Hood in Command.--Assumes the Offensive.--Sherman in Atlanta.--Losses.--Hood to Alabama and Tennessee.­--The March to the Sea.--Living on the Country.--Sherman at Savannah.--Hardee Evacuates.--A Christmas Gift.--The Blow to the Confederacy.--Thomas Crushes Hood.--Sherman Marches North.--Charleston Falls.--Columbia.--Johnston Routed at Ben­tonville.--Sherman Master of the Carolinas.--Johnston Surrenders.

 

                                                                                                                              PAGE:

CHAPTER VII. THE VIRGINIA CAMPAIGNS OF 1862--63                                              75

 

McClellan to Fortress Monroe.--Yorktown.--Williamsburg.­--Fair Oaks.--Lee in Command.--McDowell Retained at Fredericksburg.--Lee Assumes the Offensive.--Gaines's Mill.--The Seven Days' Retreat.--Malvern Hill.--Union Army at Har­rison's Landing.--Discouragement.--McClellan Leaves the Pe­ninsula.--Pope's Advance on Richmond.--Retreat.--Jackson in his Rear.--Second Battle of Bull Run.--Pope Defeated. ­--Chantilly.--McClellan again Commander.--Lee in Maryland.­--South Mountain.--Antietam.--Lee Escapes.--McClellan Removed and Burnside in Command.--Fredericksburg.--The Battle.--Hooker General-in-Chief.--Chancellorsville.--Flank Movement by Jackson.--Battle of May 3d.--Lee in Pennsyl­vania.--Convergence to Gettysburg.--First Day's Battle.--Second Day.--Third.--Pickett's Charge.--Failure.--Lee Escapes.--­Significance of this Battle.

 

CHAPTER VIII. COLLAPSE OF THE CONFEDERACY                                                 106

 

Grant Comes East.--Battle of the Wilderness.--Flanking.--Spottsylvania.--The "Bloody Angle."--Butler "Bottled Up" at Bermuda.--Grant at the North Anna.--At Cold Harbor.­--Change of Base to the James.--Siege of Petersburg.--The Mine. --Washington in Peril.--Operations in Shenandoah Valley.--"Sheridan's Ride."--Further Work at Petersburg.--Distress at the South.--Lee's Problem.--Battle at Five Forks.--Blue-coats in Petersburg.--Davis and his Government Leave Richmond.--Union Army Enters.--Grant Pursues Lee. --The Surrender.--­Assassination of President Lincoln.-- Johnston Grounds Arms.--Capture of Jefferson Davis.

 

                                                                                                                                        


                                                               CONTENTS                                                            9

 

                                                                                                                               PAGE

CHAPTER IX. THE WAR ON THE SEA                                                                          132

 

Classification of Naval Deeds.--Our Navy when the War Be­gan.--Enlargement.-- Blockading.-- Difficulty and Success.--­Alternate Tediousness and Excitement.--Blockade-running Tac­tics.--Expeditions to Aid the Blockade.--To Port Royal.--To Roanoke Island.--Confederate Navy.--The Merrimac.--Sinks the Cumberland, Burns the Congress.--Monitor and Merrimac.--An Era in Naval Architecture and Warfare.--Operations before Charleston.--The Atlanta.--The Albemarle.--Blown Up by Cushing.--Farragut in Mobile Harbor.--Fort Fisher Taken.--­Southern Cruisers upon the High Seas. --Destructive.--The Sumter.--The Alabama.--Her Career.--Fights the Kearsarge.­--Sinks.

 

CHAPTER X. FOREIGN RELATIONS.--FINANCE.--EMANCIPATION.                        160

 

Views of the War Abroad.--England's Hostility.--Causes.--The Trent Affair.--Seward's Reasoning.--Great Britain's Breach of Neutrality.--Louis Napoleon's Hypocrisy.--Invasion of Mexico.--Maximilian.--War Expenditure.--How Met.--Duties.­Internal Revenue.--Loans.--Bonds.--Treasury Notes.--Treasurer's Report, July 1, 1865.--Errors of War Financiering.--­Confederate Finances.--High Prices at South.--Problem of the Slave in Union Lines.--"Contraband of War."--Rendition by United States Officers.--Arguments for Emancipation.--Congressional Legislation.--Abolition in District of Columbia.­--Negro Soldiers.--Preliminary Proclamation.--Final Effects.-- Mr. Lincoln's Difficulties.--Republican Opposition.--Abolitionist.--Democratic.--Copperhead.--Yet he is Re-elected.

 

CHAPTER XI. RECONSTRUCTION                                                                                182

 

Delicacy of the Task.--Reasons.--The Main Constitutional Question.--Different Views.--The Other Questions.--Answer.--Periods of Reconstruction.--During War.--President Lincoln.


 

--Johnson.--His Policy.--Carried Out.--Congress Rips up his Work.--Why.--South's Attitude just after War.--Toward Ne­groes.--XIVth Amendment.--Rejected by Southern States.­--Iron Law of 1867.--Carried through.--Antagonism between President Johnson and Congress.--Attempt to Impeach Johnson.--Fails.

 

PERIOD V

 

THE CEMENTED UNION

 

1868-1888

                                                                                                                               PAGE

CHAPTER I. POLITICAL HISTORY OF THE LAST TWO DECADES                           201

 

Grant's First Election.--His Work During Reconstruction.--­Its Difficulty.--Bayonet Rule in the South.--The Force Act.--­Danger to State Independence.--"Liberal Republican" Move­ment.--The Greeley Campaign, 1872.--Grant again Elected.­--Fresh Turmoil at the South.--Culminates in Louisiana.--Blood Shed.--The Kellogg Government Sustained in that State.--A Solid South.--The Election of 1876.--In Doubt.--The Returns. --The Electoral Commission of 1877.--Hayes Seated.--The Electoral Count Act, 1886.--Hayes's Administration.--End of the Bayonet Regime.--Garfield's Nomination.--And Election.--And Assassination.--The Guiteau Trial.--Civil Service Reform.­--Under Grant.--Under Hayes.--Need of it.--Credit Mobilier Scandal.--The Pendleton Act Passed.--Its Nature and Opera­tion.--Recovery of Power by the Democracy.--Election of Cleve­land.--The Civil Service.--Presidential Succession Act of 1886.­--Its Necessity.--And Provisions.

 

CHAPTER II. THE TREATY OF WASHINGTON.                                                          237

 

A Shining Instance of Peaceful International Methods.--­Earlier Negotiations.--"ALABAMA CLAIMS" Insisted on.--A Joint Commission.--Its Personnel.--A Treaty Drafted and Rati­fied.--Its Provisions.--Northwest Boundary Question.--Minor Claims.--The Alabama Claims.--Geneva Tribunal.--Personnel.--No Pay for Indirect Losses.--Importance of the Case.--

                                                                                                                                        


                                                         CONTENTS                                                         

 

The Three Rules of the Washington Treaty.--Position of Great Britain Relative to These.--Their Meaning.--An Advance in International Law.--The Other Cruisers.-- The Award.--Charles Francis Adams.--The Money Paid.--Its History.

 

                                                                                                                               PAGE

CHAPTER III. THE FISHERIES DISPUTE.                                                                     249

Fishery Clause of the Treaty of 1783.--Value of the Rights it Conveyed.--Effect of War of 1812.--Convention of 1818.--Its Fateful Provisions.--Troubles in Consequence.-- The Reciprocity of 1854.--Repeal in 1865.-- New Troubles.--Reciprocity by Treaty of Washington, from 1871.--Repealed in 1885.--Why--Friction in 1886.--Strict Enforcement by Canada of Convention of 1818.--Severities.--Their Animus.--Pleas of the United States Government.--Threat of Retaliation.--Commission to Draft New Treaty.--Indecisive Result.--Northwestern Fisheries Question Settled.

 

CHAPTER IV. THE SOUTH.                                                                                           271

The Results of Congressional Reconstruction.--Restoration of White Rule.-- Ku-Klux-Klan.--Improvement.--Loyalty at the South.--Prosperity.--Cotton.--Manufacturing.--Iron.--Marble.--Southern Cities.--Country Parts.--State of Florida.

 

CHAPTER V. THE WEST.                                                                                               285

New States and Territories.--Alaska.--Its Resources.--Both Sides of the Rockies Filling Up.--Pacific Railways.--Colorado. --California.-- Great American Desert.--Tabular View of the West's Growth.--Western Cities.--Minnesota.--St. Paul, Minneapolis, Duluth.--Duluth and Chicago.--Statistics of Immigra­tion.

 

CHAPTER VI. THE EXPOSITION OF 1876.                                                                    299

Origin of the Plan.--Organization.--Financial Basis.--Con­clusion to Make it a World Affair.--To be at Philadelphia.­--Building.--Opening Exercises.--The Main Building.--Arrangement and Contents.--


 

The American Exhibit.--Machinery Hall.--The Corliss Engine.--Agricultural Hall.--Memorial Hall.--­The Art Exhibit.--Horticultural Hall.--Minor Arrangements and Structures.--The Fourth of July Celebration.--Original Copy of the Declaration of Independence Read.--Interest in the Phila­delphia Exposition.

 

                                                                                                                               PAGE

CHAPTER VII. ECONOMIC POLITICS.                                                                         313

Reduction of National Debt.--Refunding.--Surplus.--Tariff.--Its History since the War.--Policy of the Political Parties.­--Tariffs of 1890 and 1894.--Trusts.--The Dollar of the Fathers.--Resumption of Specie Payments.--The Promissory Greenback.--Fiat Greenback Theory.--And Party.--Great Strike of 1877·--Labor Movement and Labor Question.--Corporations.--Their Evil Influence.--Counter-organizations.--Growth of our Urban Population.

 

CHAPTER VIII. THE MARCH OF INDUSTRY.                                                              332

Progress in Cotton Manufacturing.--In Woollen, Iron, and Other.--In Travel.--New Submarine Cables.--First Pacific Rail­way.--Others.--Consolidation of Railways.--Electric Lighting.--­Brooklyn Bridge.--Elevated Railways and New Modes of Surface Traction.-- Telephone.--Black Friday.--Chicago Fire.--Boston Fire.--Hard Times of 1873.--Material Betterment for Last Two Decades.

 

CHAPTER IX. END OF THE PERIOD                                                                             364

Contrast of New Things with Old.--Postal Arrangements.--Art.--Extension of Suffrage.--Woman's Rights.--Higher Education for Women.--Socialism and State Socialism.--Widened Scope of Governmental Action.--Restriction of Immigration.--Catholics.­--Their Attitude to Public Schools.--Peril to Family.--Mormonism.--Divorce.--Danger from a Secular Spirit.--New Sense of Na­tionality.--Benign Results.--Greely Expedition to Polar Regions.--Lesson of our National Success to Other Nations.--Our Nation's Duty in World Affairs.


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

 

                                                                                                                              PAGE:

THE WORLD'S FAIR AT CHICAGO. CENTRAL PORTION

OF MACMONNIES FOUNTAIN--EFFECT OF ELECTRIC LIGHT,                Frontispiece

GENERAL JOHN POPE,                                                                                                    24

GENERAL WILLIAM T. SHERMAN,                                                                                29

THE BATTLE OF THE RAMS AT MEMPHIS, JUNE 6, 1862,                                            31

FARRAGUT IN THE MAIN-RIGGING. (From the original by William Page),                       37

GENERAL HENRY W. HALLECK,                                                                                   40

GENERAL WILLIAM S. ROSECRANS,                                                                             49

GENERAL GEORGE H. THOMAS,                                                                                    52

GENERAL JOSEPH HOOKER,                                                                                          55

THE BATTLE OF LOOKOUT MOUNTAIN. (The "Battle above the Clouds "),                    57

GENERAL JAMES B. McPHERSON,                                                                                 60

GENERAL DAVID D. PORTER,                                                                                        76

GENERAL ROBERT E. LEE,                                                                                             77

GENERAL NATHANIEL P. BANKS,                                                                                79

GENERAL J. E. B. STUART'S RAID UPON POPE'S HEAD­QUARTERS,

AUGUST 22, 1862, WHEN POPE'S DESPATCH-BOOK

FELL INTO THE HANDS OF THE CONFEDERATES,                                               81

GENERAL THOMAS J. ("STONEWALL") JACKSON,                                                      84

GENERAL EDWIN V. SUMNER,                                                                                      86

GENERAL WINFIELD S. HANCOCK,                                                                              87

GENERAL AMBROSE E. BURNSIDE,                                                                              89

THE STONE WALL AT FREDERICKSBURG,                                                                  91

GENERAL OLIVER O. HOWARD,                                                                                    93

GENERAL JOHN SEDGWICK,                                                                                          94

GENERAL JAMES LONGSTREET,                                                                                    98

GENERAL GEORGE G. MEADE,                                                                                     100

DEATH OF GENERAL SEDGWICK AT SPOTTSYLVANIA, MAY 9, 1864,                    108


 

                                                                                                                               PAGE

GENERAL DAVID HUNTER,                                                                                          113

GENERAL LEE SIGNING THE TERMS OF SURRENDER AT

APPOMATTOX COURT-HOUSE,                                                                             127

GIDEON WELLES,                                                                                                           133

THE SINKING OF THE FRIGATE CUMBERLAND BY THE

MERRIMAC IN HAMPTON ROADS, MARCH 8, 1862,                                             141

JOHN ERICSSON,                                                                                                            145

SECTIONAL VIEW OF MONITOR THROUGH TURRET AND PILOT-HOUSE,           147

THE ORIGINAL MONITOR,                                                                                            150

THE SINKING OF THE ALABAMA,                                                                               157

THE LANDING OF THE ALLIED TROOPS AT VERA CRUZ,                                       163

MAXIMILIAN WATCHING THE DEPARTURE OF THE LAST

FRENCH TROOPS FROM THE CITY OF MEXICO,                                                  169

SALMON PORTLAND CHASE, SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY

DURING THE CIVIL WAR,                                                                                       173

FACSIMILE OF A PORTION OF PRESIDENT LINCOLN'S DRAFT OF THE

PRELIMINARY PROCLAMATION OF EMANCIPATION, SEPTEMBER,

EDWIN M. STANTON,                                                                                                    197

ULYSSES S. GRANT,                                                                                                       199

SAMUEL J. TILDEN. (After a pastel by Sarony in the house at Gramercy Park),                 211

JAMES A. GARFIELD,                                                                                                     219

JAMES G. BLAINE,                                                                                                          225

PRESIDENT GROVER CLEVELAND,                                                                             231

A FACSIMILE PUT IN EVIDENCE BEFORE THE CONGRESSIONAL

COMMITTEE,                                                                                                              272

THE MOUTH OF THE MIAMI RIVER, FLORIDA,                                                          282

THE SITE OF CHICAGO,                                                                                                 286

AN OHIO RIVER FLAT-BOAT,                                                                                       289

AN IRRIGATED ORANGE GROVE AT RIVERSIDE, CALIFORNIA,                             291

THE IRRIGATING RESERVOIR AT WALNUT GROVE, ARIZONA,

SHOWING THE ARTIFICIAL LAKE PARTLY FILLED,                                           296

AT THE CENTENNIAL EXPOSITION, PHILADELPHIA, 1876,                                      300

                                                                                                                                              


                                                    LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS                                             

 

                                                                                                                                     PAGE

THE AMERICAN LINE STEAMSHIP ST. LOUIS, LAUNCHED

FROM THE CRAMPS DOCKS, NOVEMBER 12, 1894.

(554  feet long, 11,000 tons, and 20,000 horse-power),                                                     333

CORNELIUS VANDERBILT,                                                                                           337

THE BIG LOOP ON THE GEORGETOWN BRANCH OF THE

UNION PACIFIC, COLORADO,                                                                                339

CHARLES F. BRUSH,                                                                                                      341

MOSES G. FARMER,                                                                                                        342

THOMAS A. EDISON,                                                                                                     343

THE HOOSAC TUNNEL LIT BY GLOW LAMPS, AFTER THE

PLAN OF THE MARR CONSTRUCTION COMPANY,                                             345

EDISON'S PLATINUM LAMP ON CARBON SUPPORT, 1879.                                      347

EDISON'S PAPER CARBON LAMP,                                                                               347

EDISON'S FIRST INCANDESCENT PLATINUM LAMP,                                               348

THE BROOKLYN BRIDGE, LOOKING UP THE EAST RIVER,                                     351

THE MANHATTAN ELEVATED RAILWAY, NEW YORK,                                           353

UNDER SIDE OF A MODERN SWITCHBOARD, SHOWING 2,000

TELEGRAPH WIRES,                                                                                                355

PROFESSOR BELL SENDING THE FIRST MESSAGE, BY LONG­-DISTANCE

TELEPHONE, FROM NEW YORK TO CHICAGO,                                                   357

THE NEW YORK GOLD ROOM ON "BLACK FRIDAY,"

SEPTEMBER 24,1869,                                                                                                 358

A SCENE DURING THE CHICAGO FIRE,                                                                      360

CATCHING THE MAIL POUCH FROM THE CRANE,                                                   368

IGLOOS, OR ESQUIMAU HUTS,                                                                                     376

A. W. GREELY,                                                                                                                377


                                                      LIST OF MAPS

 

                                                                                                                               PAGE

THE CONFEDERATE LINE FROM COLUMBUS TO BOWLING GREEN,                       18

FORT HENRY,                                                                                                                   19

FORT DONELSON,                                                                                                            21

NEW MADRID AND ISLAND NUMBER TEN,                                                                27

MEMPHIS TO IUKA, 1862,                                                                                                34

OPERATIONS IN LOUISIANA. FEBRUARY TO JULY, 1863,                                         44

ATLANTA TO SAVANNAH,                                                                                            65

THE BATTLE-FIELD OF NASHVILLE,                                                                            71

MAP OF NORTH CAROLINA,                                                                                          73

JACKSON'S ATTACK ON HOWARD, MAY 1, 1863,                                                        95

DIAGRAM OF THE ATTACK ON SICKLES AND SYKES,                                            103

THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY,                                                                                      115

GENERAL EARLY'S MARYLAND CAMPAIGN,                                                           117

GRANT'S PURSUIT OF LEE, APRIL, 1865,                                                                     123

MAP OF HAMPTON ROADS,                                                                                         137

Please login to post a comment. You may create an account using the form available to the right.

 

Major Battles of the Civil War

 

Banner