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148 Series III Volume III- Serial 124 - Union Letters, Orders, Reports

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the time of the final payment of the troops. The Paymaster- General will cause them to be paid immediately on their arrival in their respective States and before they disperse.

By order of the Secretary of War:

E. D. TOWNSENS,

Assistant Adjutant-General.

GENERAL ORDERS,
WAR DEPT., ADJT. GENERAL'S OFFICE, Numbers 100.
Washington, April 24, 1863.

The following "Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Fiedl," prepared by Francis Lieber, LL. D., and revised by a board of officers, of which Major General E. A. Hitchcock is president, having been approved by the President of the United States, he commands that they be published for the information of all concerned.

By order of the Secretary of War:

E. D. TOWNSEND,

Assistant Adjutant-General.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF ARMIES OF THE UNITED STATES IN THE FIELD.

SECTION I.-Martial law-Military jurisdiction-Military necessity- Retaliation.

1. A place, district, or country occupied by an enemy stands, in consequence of the occupation, under the martial law of the invading or occupying army, whether any proclamation declaring martial law, or any public warning ot the inhabitants, has been issued or not. Martial law is the immediate and direct effect and consequence of occupation or conquers.

The presence of a hostile army proclamation its martial law.

2. Martial law does not cease during the hostile occupation, except by special proclamation, ordered by the command-in-chief, or by special mention in the treaty of peace concluding the war, when the occupation of a place or territory continues beyond the conclusion of peace as one of the conditions of the same.

3. Martial law in a hostile country consists in the suspension by the occupying military authority of the criminal and civil law, and of the domestic administration and government in the occupied place or territory, and in the substitution of military rule and force for the same, as well in the dictation of general laws, as far as military necessity requires this suspension, substitution, or dictation.

The commander of the forces may proclaim that the administration of all civil and penal law shall continue either wholly or in part, as in times of peace, unless otherwise ordered by the military authority.

4. Martial law is simply military authority exercised in accordance with the laws and usages of war. Military oppression is not martial law; it is the abuse of the power which that law confers. As martial law is executed by military force, it is incumbent upon those who administer it to be strictly guided by the principle of justice, honor, and humanity-virtues adorning a soldier even more than other men, for the very reason that he possesses the power of his arms against the unarmed.

5. Martial law should be less stringent in places and countries fully occupied and fairly conquered. Much greater severity may be exer-


Page 148 CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.

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