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Shiloh National Military Park commemorating 154th anniversary

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Shiloh National Military Park commemorating 154th anniversary

 

 

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SHILOH, Tennessee - Shiloh National Military Park will commemorate the 154th anniversary of the battle by offering a variety of living history demonstrations and  interpretive programs over a seven day period, from Saturday, April 2, through Friday, April 8.rngershi

“The National Park Service will turn 100 years old on August 25, 2016, and we invite everyone to join us in a year-long celebration of America’s National Parks.  Throughout the nation, at every park, we will be hosting a variety of signature events to celebrate the centennial.  At Shiloh National Military Park, the commemoration of the anniversary of the battle is our first Centennial signature event for 2016.  We invite everyone to come out to the park and remember the epic battle fought here in 1862,” said Park Superintendent Dale Wilkerson. “The event will include everything from full scale living history demonstrations, to in depth, real-time ranger led hikes.”

The 154th anniversary activities kick off on the weekend of April 2 and 3, as the park hosts living history demonstrations on the battlefield. On Saturday, April 2, Confederate reenactors will participate in cavalry, artillery, and infantry demonstrations, culminating with a joint tactical demonstration in Duncan Field. At the park visitor center, visitors will be treated to wet plate photography demonstrations, Union Quartermaster Department programs, and exhibits on the Union Navy during the Civil War. Both Union and Confederate camps open to the public at 8:00 a.m. on Saturday.



Visitors will also have a chance to meet Emmy Award winning author Patricia Cameron. Ms. Cameron will be signing her new book, “Unconditional Surrender: The Romance of Julia and Ulysses S. Grant” in the park bookstore from 11:00 a.m. – 1:00 p.m. on Saturday, April 2.   

On Sunday, April 3, all activities will be centered around the park visitor center including the wet plate photography studio, Union navy exhibits, and Union infantry and firing demonstrations. On both days visitors are also invited to meet sailors representing the U.S. Navy Ticonderoga-Class Destroyer “USS SHILOH,” currently stationed in the Sea of Japan.  These sailors will be on-hand to present information about the ship and to participate in the days’ events.

The park will also offer tours and hikes beginning on April 2 and ending on April 8. Volunteers and rangers will lead hikes and all access car caravan tours on a variety of subjects, from general battle overviews to actions at specific locations.  Some of the tours have limited space, so the park asks that interested individuals pre-register for hikes and tours by calling the Shiloh visitor center at 731-689-5696.  

Registered participants should meet the guides at the appointed sites and times, and are encouraged to wear appropriate clothing and footwear for the weather and terrain. Visitors attending more than one hike are encouraged to have food and water available.

A complete schedule of living history events, in-depth battlefield hikes, and car caravan tours is attached to this release, and also posted on the park website at www.nps.gov/shil.

-NPS-

 

shiranger

 

154TH BATTLE ANNIVERSARY HIKES AND TOURS
April 2, 2016
CAR CARAVAN TOURS (Meet at Visitor Center) (Tour of battlefield is 3 hours in length.)
9:00 a.m. - 12:00 p.m.
1:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m.
In commemoration of Shiloh’s 154th Battle Anniversary, Park Volunteer Jimmy Whittington, will be conducting car caravan tours of Shiloh Battlefield.The car caravan tours will allow visitors the opportunity to follow the battle in the chronological order as it developed.The tours will take visitors to the high points on the battlefield in order to interpret the story of the bloody Battle of Shiloh.While visiting historic sites such as Fraley Field, the Hornets’ Nest, and the Peach Orchard, visitors will be afforded the opportunity to ask questions of Mr. Whittington and achieve a better understanding of the epic battle.

 

April 3, 2016
CAR CARAVAN TOUR (Meet at Visitor Center) (Tour of battlefield is 4 hours in length.)
10:00 a.m. - 2:00 p.m.
In commemoration of Shiloh’s 154thBattle Anniversary, Park Volunteer Jimmy Whittington, will be conducting car caravan tours of Shiloh Battlefield.The car caravan tours will allow visitors the opportunity to follow the battle in the chronological order as it developed.The tours will take visitors to the high points on the battlefield in order to interpret the story of the bloody Battle of Shiloh.While visiting historic sites such as Fraley Field, the Hornets’ Nest, and the Peach Orchard, visitors will be afforded the opportunity to ask questions of Mr. Whittington and achieve a better understanding of the epic battle.   

 

April 4, 2016
BATTLE HISTORY AND MONUMENTS: EXPLORING THE SOUTHERN HALF OF THE BATTLEFIELD
Meet at Tour Stop #6 - Rhea Field
9:00 a.m. - 6:00 p.m.
Distance: 7 miles
Terrain: East to Very Difficult
Beginning in Rhea Field, one of the hottest spots of the battle on April 6th, Dr. Jeff Gentsch will lead a hike over the southern half of the battlefield.This hike will provide a general overview of the battle, while concentrating on some of the most hotly contested sectors of the engagement by examining approximately 300 position tablets and monuments on the southern portion of the battlefield.The topics of discussion include what happened at certain locations and their relevance to the outcome of the battle and putting the tablets and monuments into the context of the overall battle by focusing on what has not been included in their description.This will include the reasoning and history behind the placement of the tablets and monuments and how the chaos generated by one of the most confusing battles in military history has fostered misunderstandings and myths that begin to emerge just after the war ended.

 

April 5, 2016
BATTLE HISTORY AND MONUMENTS: EXPLORING THE NORTHERN HALF OF THE BATTLEFIELD
Meet at Tour Stop #10 - Hornets' Nest
9:00 a.m. - 6:00 p.m.
Distance: 7.5 miles
Terrain: Easy to Very Difficult
Beginning at the Hornets’ Nest, one of the hottest spots of the battle on April 6th, Dr. Jeff Gentsch will conduct a hike exploring the northern half of the battlefield.This hike will provide a general overview of the battle, while concentrating on some of the most hotly contested sectors of the engagement by examining approximately 300 position tablets and monuments on the northern portion of the battlefield.The topics of discussion include what happened at certain locations and their relevance to the outcome of the battle and placing the tablets and monuments into the context of the overall battle by focusing on what has not been included in their descriptions.This will include the reasoning and history behind the placement of the tablets and monuments, and how the chaos generated by one of the most confusing battles in military history has fostered misunderstandings and myths that begin to emerge just after the war ended.

 

April 6, 2016
FRALEY FIELD: THE BLOODY BATTLE BEGINS
Meet at Visitor Center - 5:00 a.m.
5:15 a.m - 7:00 a.m.
Distance: Union Hike - 2 miles round trip; Southern Hike - 1 mile roundtrip
Terrain: Moderate
Join Park Volunteers, Dr. Jeff Gentsch and Bjorn Skaptason, on a two hour battlefield hike which will introduce visitors to the events surrounding the opening shots of the battle.These hikes will travel the approach routes of the Union and Confederate soldiers toward Fraley Field, whose landscape witnessed the first exchange of hostilities and the beginning of the epic Battle of Shiloh.These individual tours will both arrive in Fraley Field at sunrise.After arriving at the Visitor Center, hikers will divide into two groups.Visitors participating in the Northern advance will follow Park Volunteer Bjorn Skaptason to Tour Stop # 9, (Invasion of the Union Camps), where their hike will begin.This group will retrace the route of the Federal reconnoitering party ordered out by Colonel Everett Peabody.The second group will follow Dr. Jeff Gentsch and will drive to the edge of Fraley Field, where their approach will begin.This group will retrace the Confederate pickets trek and take their position in Fraley Field.The two groups will encounter each other at daylight in Fraley Field, just as the Union and Confederate soldiers met on that historic morning of April 6th, 1862.

 

SHERMAN FIGHTS FOR TIME AT SHILOH CHURCH
Meet at Tour Stop #6 - Rhea Field
8:30 a.m. - 10:30 a.m.
Distance: 1 mile
Terrain: Moderate
On the morning of April 6, 1862, General William T. Sherman was not expecting a major Confederate attack on the Union encampments.With the advance of General Patrick Cleburne’s Brigade, Sherman would become aware of the ongoing attack and would put together a defensive line near Shiloh Church.Join Park Ranger Charles Spearman as he conducts a hike that will follow the Confederate assaults on this line, and how General Sherman, after a stubborn defense, was forced to pull back from this defensive line.This hike will conclude near the crossroads of the Hamburg-Purdy Road and the Corinth Road.

 

COLONEL WORTHINGTON'S BATTLES: OHIO ON THE WEST FLANK
Meet at Tour Stop #5 - Shiloh Church
8:30 a.m. - 10:30 a.m.
Distance: 2 miles
Terrain: Moderate difficulty, through off-trail ravines and forest
The Union controversies following the battle focused largely on the question of surprise.Thousands of Ohio’s sons were among the first troops attacked, and they were also among the least experienced troops in General Grant’s Army.One Union Colonel, Thomas Worthington of the 46th Ohio, became an annoyance to the Union leadership following the battle.One of the points to be explored, and discussed, in this program will be why Colonel Worthington would eventually be relieved from his command.Join Park Volunteer Bjorn Skaptason as he retraces the battle experiences of the 46th Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiment.This hike will follow the regiment’s battlefield actions on the right, or western, flank of the Union line and provide descriptions of their first day combat.

 

ALONE ON THE LEFT: COL. DAVID STUART'S BRIGADE
Meet at Tour Stop #14 - Field Hospital
9:30 a.m. - 11:00 a.m.
Distance: 2 miles
Terrain: Easy to moderate covering mostly level and open ground

Join Park Ranger Chris Mekow for this 2 mile hike that traces the steps of the isolated brigade of Union Colonel David Stuart.This program will discuss how 800 men held off 5,000 Confederates supported by eight artillery pieces for several hours.The hike will also discuss the “lost” 71st Ohio Infantry Regiment.

 

CAR CARAVAN TOUR
Meet at Visitor Center  (Tour of battlefield is 4 hours in length.)
10:00 a.m. - 2:00 p.m.
In commemoration of Shiloh’s 154th Battle Anniversary, Park Volunteer Jimmy Whittington, will be conducting a car caravan tour of Shiloh Battlefield.This car caravan tour will allow visitors the opportunity to follow the battle in the chronological order as it developed.The tour will take visitors to the high points on the battlefield in order to interpret the story of the bloody Battle of Shiloh.While visiting historic sites such as Fraley Field, the Hornets’ Nest, and the Peach Orchard, visitors will be afforded the opportunity to ask questions of Mr. Whittington and achieve a better understanding of the epic battle.

 

PENNY PACKETS: CONFEDERATE ARTILLERY ON THE ATTACK AND DEFENSE
Meet at Tour Stop #6 - Rhea Field
11:00 a.m.- 2:00 p.m.
Distance: 4 miles
Terrain: Easy to difficult
A serious problem experienced by the Confederate army at Shiloh was lack of effective artillery support, contributing greatly to the failure of its assaults in key sectors.The majority of Federal cannon were rifled and the Union had the added advantage of firing from elevated defensive positions.Furthermore, Southern artillery organization dispersed batteries, usually one per brigade, not allowing them to concentrate and suppress areas of strong Federal resistance, which delayed the Confederate advance and exposed Rebel infantry to punishing Union cannonades, slowing the advance and causing high casualties.This conundrum was experienced by Federal gunners on April 7th, when the roles were reversed and Southern cannoneers enjoyed operating in static positions that were concealed by vegetation and topography.Join Dr. Jeff Gentsch and examine how battlefield topography affected and influenced the impacts of the artillery of both sides during the battle.

 

TACTICAL SURPRISE: THE UNION COUNTER-ATTACK OF SHERMAN AND MCCLERNAND
Meet at Tour Stop #12 - Jones Field
11:30 p.m. - 1:00 p.m.
Distance: 1 miles
Terrain: Easy
Late in the morning of April 6th, the embattled Union right flank stabilized near Jones Field.Division commanders William Sherman and John McClernand were faced with two options; to wait on the inevitable attack on their new position and continue to fall back, or take the initiative and attack the unsuspecting enemy.Ultimately, they chose the latter opportunity.Join Park Ranger Tom Parson and retrace the steps of the critical attack which bought precious time for General Grant’s beleaguered forces.

 

TENNESSEE IN THE HORNETS' NEST
Meet at Tour Stop #10 - Hornets' Nest
1:00 p.m. - 3:00 p.m.
Distance: 3 miles
Terrain: Moderately difficult, across streams and through underbrush off trails
Join Park Volunteer Bjorn Skaptason and examine the experiences of Colonel William Stephens’ Brigade of Tennesseans in the first attack on the Union center.Also discussed will be the attack by Colonel George Maney’s command against the collapsing pivot of the Union line.Visitors will be able to understand the importance of these assaults conducted by these Volunteer State men.One of the combat exchanges examined will be the bloody fight between Colonel Maney’s Southern forces and the 3rd Iowa Infantry Regiment.

 

FIGHTING FOR THE LEFT: THE CONFEDERATES DRIVE TOWARD PITTSBURG LANDING
Meet at Tour Stop #16 - Peach Orchard
1:30 p.m. - 3:30 p.m.
Distance 2 miles
Terrain: Moderate, except for two rugged ravines
The Confederate objective in the Battle of Shiloh was to turn the Union left flank, and cut General Grant’s army off from Pittsburg Landing.By the afternoon of April 6th, General Stephen Hurlbut’s Division and parts of General John McArthur’s Brigade stood in the way of this objective.The struggle to turn the Union left continued through the afternoon until 4:00 p.m.By the time the Union fell back the Confederate commander had been killed leading the attack and the Confederates found they had too little and were too late to reach their objective.Join Park Ranger Charles Spearman on this tour and explore the severe struggle which occurred on this part of the battlefield.

 

TENDING THE WOUNDED AND BURYING THE DEAD: THE AFTERMATH OF SHILOH
Meet at Tour Stop #16 - The Peach Orchard
1:30 p.m. - 3:00 p.m.
Distance: Mostly Driving and Short Walks
Terrain: Easy
Explore the aftermath of battle and the carnage left behind by two days of bloodletting with Park Ranger Chris Mekow.The tour includes a look at 19th century surgical implements, the largest Confederate Burial Trench, and the Shiloh National Cemetery.

 

"THE HOTTEST PLACE I EVER GOT INTO": THE ARTILLERY OF RUGGLES AND SHOUP
Meet at Tour Stop #4 - Ruggles' Battery
2:30 p.m. - 3:30 p.m.
Distance: 3/4 miles
Terrain: Easy
Beginning at the Corinth Road, this hike will follow the line of artillery gathered by Brigadier General Daniel Ruggles and Captain Francis A. Shoup to counter the Federal cannon in the Hornets’ Nest.Join Park Ranger Tom Parson as he describes the creation of the line and its role in subduing the Union center.Along the way individual cannon will be pointed out, describing the type of weapon, when and where it was manufactured, and other points of interest.Shiloh has an exceptional collection of Confederate manufactured artillery and most of these will be seen on this hike.

 

THE CRUCIBLE OF CROSSFIRE: THE ENCIRCLEMENT OF UNION FORCES AT THE PINNACLEOF BATTLE
Meet at Tour Stop #10 - Hornets' Nest
3:30 p.m. - 6:30 p.m.
Distance: 2.5 miles
Terrain: Easy to difficult
Beginning at the Union Center Loop, Dr. Jeff Gentsch will conduct a hike which will examine how the encirclement of General Prentiss’ Union command unfolded on all sides by following the course of the assaulting Confederate brigades until they were in position to cut off the Federal retreat from the Hornets’ Nest – Duncan Field line towards the end of the first day of battle.The first segment of the hike will traipse east to J. R. Chalmers’ 4:00 p.m. brigade tablet, from where the Confederate advance began to force Federal commanders to refuse their line around Wicker Field.Next, the northern sector, where Confederate infantry and cavalry closed the Hamburg-Savannah and Corinth-Pittsburg Landing Crossroads to retreating Union forces, will be examined.Lastly, the Southern advance in the western sector between Cavalry and Stacy Fields will be hiked, culminating in the area where Prentiss’s command surrendered entailing the Corinth-Pittsburg Landing Road, west Cloud Field, and the northern verges of Hell’s Hollow.

 

GRANT'S LAST LINE OF DEFENSE: GEOGRAPHY, PSYCHOLOGY, AND GUNBOATS
Meet at the Visitor Center
4:00 p.m. - 6:30 p.m.
Distance: 2 miles
Terrain: Difficult
At 2:00 p.m. on the afternoon of April 6th, General Grant began preparing his last line of defense in the event the Confederates overcame Union resistance on the Peach Orchard – Hornets’ Nest – Jones’ Field line.Colonel Joseph Webster assembled his guns along a line about 800 years north of Dill Branch, supported by disorganized detachments of infantry, and guarded on the east flank by the gunboats Lexington and Tyler.When the Confederates moved against this position at about 6:00 p.m., their uncoordinated attack dissolved without making any impression on Webster’s position.What prevented the Confederates from succeeding in this last attack? What role did the Union Navy play in deterring a final Confederate effort? Was the Southern apprehension of the “horror” of the possible devastation which the gunboats might cause merited? Join Park Volunteer Bjorn Skaptason on this hike as he explains why Grant’s last line of defense held, and discusses the importance of psychological factors in the outcome of the battle.

 

April 7, 2016

THE LONG NIGHT
Meet at the Visitor Center
8:00 a.m. - 9:00 a.m.
Distance: 1 miles
Terrain: Easy
Join Park Ranger Tom Parson and hike along the camps of General Grant’s last line of defense.This program will discuss the experiences of the soldiers throughout the night of April 6th.The night of inclement weather, the sound of the firingfrom the gunboats Tyler and Lexington, and the unknown outcome of the battle weighed on the minds of the soldiers.The program will also discuss the preparations during the night in anticipation of the beginning of the battle the next morning.

 

GENERAL LEW WALLACE OUTFLANKS THE CONFEDERATE LINE
Meet at the Visitor Center
8:30 a.m. - 10:30 a.m.
Distance: 2 miles
Terrain: Moderate
General Wallace started the Union advance on the morning of April 7th, 1862 and outflanked the piecemeal Confederate line forcing them to retreat back toward Shiloh Church.Although, Wallace was blamed for not arriving as early as expected on April 6th, he redeemed himself with his actions on Monday.Join Park Ranger Charles Spearman and explore the battle action of General Lew Wallace’s Division against the left flank of the Southern resistance to begin the second day of battle at Shiloh.

 

ATTACK - COUNTERATTACK: THE CONTEST FOR THE CENTER
Meet at Tour Stop #10 - Hornets' Nest
9:00 a.m. - 11;00 a.m.
Distance: 2 miles
Terrain: Easy to Moderate
As the battle on the second day began in earnest, deadly firefights developed across the battlefield, especially in the center.This center of the battlefield is where advancing Federal units encountered Confederate forces around and along the western edge of Sarah Bell’s Old Cotton Field, Daniel Davis Wheat Field, Duncan Field, the Hornets’ Nest, and the Review Field on a front parallel with the Hamburg – Purdy Road.The action was fierce, with positions and batteries changing hands more than once until the preponderance of Union manpower exerted enough pressure to make the Confederate commander, P.G.T. Beauregard, order a withdrawal at 2:30 p.m.Join Dr. Jeff Gentsch and discover that although not as well documented as the action on April 6th, the combat on April 7th was just as fierce and desperate as both sides realized the victor that day would carry the field and win the battle.

 

COLONEL AMMEN'S TENTH BRIGADE'S DAYLIGHT ADVANCE
Meet in front of the Visitor Center
11:30 a.m. - 2:00 p.m.
Distance: 3 miles one way
Terrain: Difficult, crossing deep ravines, with woods and underbrush
The first Union regiments from General Don Carlos Buell’s Army of the Ohio to arrive in support of General Grant’s troops were from Colonel Jacob Ammen’s Tenth Brigade.These were the only troops of Buell’s command to participate in the fighting on the evening of April 6th, and they were the first troops to advance on the morning of April 7th.Join Park Volunteer Bjorn Skaptason and explore this section of the battlefield that marked the extreme left flank of the Union counterattack.Visitors will traverse the same challenging terrain that Union and Confederate soldiers fought over on April 7th, and learn about the fierce fighting that occurred in the woods and deep ravines east of the River Road.

 

A TRULY SAD MISTAKE: THE 2ND TEXAS IN THE PEACH ORCHARD
Meet at Cloud Field
12:00 p.m. to 1:30 p.m.
Distance:1 and ½ Miles
Terrain:Easy
Join Park Ranger Tom Parson as he conducts this hike leading up to the discussion of the incident of the 2nd Texas Infantry in the Peach Orchard.Confusion of the identification of Union and Confederate troops had been a troublesome issue for both sides during the two days of combat.This program will discuss the combat positions of the 2nd Texas Infantry on the second day of battle, and the confusion which led to severe casualties for the men from the Lone Star State in the fight in the Peach Orchard.

 

THE MONUMENTS OF SHILOH
Meet at Tour Stop #6, Rhea Field
1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.
Distance:3.25 Miles
Terrain:Easy to Moderate
The battlefields of the American Civil War are often beautifully adorned with monuments that memorialize the roles of the different states and various units during the battles that had a profound impact on the course of the war.There are a number of categories for the monuments at Shiloh, such as memorials, mortuaries, regimentals, and brigade and division headquarters.The monuments were emplaced by the states and the War Department and had to comply with a set of criteria for their location, inscriptions, size and style.Join Dr. Jeff Gentsch as he conducts this hike to a multitude of monuments and discusses their history and historiography.

 

THE STRUGGLE FOR THE CROSSROADS: THE CONFEDERATES LOSE THEIR CHANCE AT VICTORY
Meet at Tour Stop 13, Water Oaks Pond
2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.
Distance:Approximately 1 Mile
Terrain:Easy

Starting at noon, Confederate forces began falling back to the intersection of the Hamburg-Purdy and Corinth Roads. The Southern forces struggled to launch counter attacks to save what had appeared to be a certain victory.The fierce struggle at Woolf Field and Water Oaks Pond turned the tide of the battle.By 3:00 p.m. it became obvious that the Confederates would have to retreat toward Corinth.Join Park Ranger Charles Spearman and explore the battleground between Woolf Field and Shiloh Church, as he discusses the Confederate counter attacks and the Union advance on the afternoon of the second day of combat.

 

“WE WILL SEE IF A SOUTHERNER IS EQUAL TO 5 DUTCHMEN”: THE 32ND INDIANA AT SHILOH
Meet at Tour Stop 2, The Confederate Monument
3:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Distance:Approximately 2 and ½ Miles
Terrain:Easy, hiking along paved roads and level fields
On the afternoon of April 7th, thousands of Union soldiers were pressing hard on General Beauregard’s beleaguered Army of the Mississippi.The motivations of these soldiers, beyond the compulsion of duty, were complicated, and often reflected some of the core reasons why the war was being fought.One of these regiments, the 32nd Indiana Infantry, was populated entirely by German immigrants.Join Park Volunteer Bjorn Skaptason as he discusses how these German-Americans threw themselves into the hottest fight of the second day of battle, and suffered accordingly.This program explores the contributions of this brave regiment to Union victory, and also provides the history on who these men were, and why they were willing to give their lives for their new country.

 

April 8, 2016

THE FINAL FIGHT OF SHILOH: FALLEN TIMBERS CAR CARAVAN
Meet at the Visitor Center
9:00 a.m. to 11:30 a.m.
Distance:8 Miles Driving
Terrain:Moderately Easy
The Battle of Shiloh ended on April 7th, but the fighting and suffering continued on April 8th.Join Park Volunteer Bjorn Skaptason and examine the Union pursuit on April 8th, and Confederate General John Breckinridge’s defense at Fallen Timbers.At Fallen Timbers, Breckinridge’s cavalry screen, under the command of aggressive Colonel Nathan Bedford Forrest, attacked a Union reconnaissance force.This aggressive defensive posture allowed the Confederate survivors to continue a slow, painful retreat to Corinth, Mississippi.


LIVING IMAGES OF SHILOH: HOW EYEWITESSES PICTURED THE BATTLE
Meet at the Visitor Center
1:30 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.
Distance:9 Miles Driving by Car Caravan; 2 Miles Walking
Terrain:Easy, hiking along paved roads and level fields
There are few photographs of Shiloh, but there are quite a few works of art, sketches and paintings made by eyewitnesses at the time of the battle.While the primitive state of photography during the 1860’s prevents us from seeing most of the battle in the stark shades of the camera lens, the vivid memories and the artistic talent of eyewitness artists gives us a uniquely truthful and vivid visual record of the battle.Join Park Volunteer Bjorn Skaptason as he conducts a car caravan program which will take visitors to some of the sites on the battlefield where artists recorded the action.It will provide a “then-and-now” perspective on the images, and discuss the lives and experiences of the artists who made the images.This program includes a digital slideshow that will be provided to participants for viewing on their personal electronic devices.

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